Species Details

Details of Small-leaved Orange Mangrove will be displayed below

Small-leaved Orang...   

Common Name: Small-leaved Orange Mangrove
Scientific Name: Bruguiera cylindrica
Local Name: Kandoo
Dhivehi Name: ކަނޑޫ
Plantae  (Kingdom)
Tracheophyta  (Plylum)
Magnoliopsida  (Class)
Malpighiales  (Order)
Rhizophoraceae  (Family)
Bruguiera   (Genus)

Small-leaved Orange Mangrove's description

A small, erect, evergreen tree 6 to 10 m tall with knee-like above-ground breathing roots. These knee roots comprise a sponge like system of air chambers, which act as an air reservoir when the roots are submerged. These roots are also covered with numerous pores, which allow air but not water to enter the root. Bark is light to dark grey or pale pink in colour and scaly at the bottom. Leaves are simple, opposite in arrangement, lanceolate in shape, about 7 to 12 cm long, shiny, dark green in colour with pointed apex. Inflorescence is a three-flowered cyme with about 1 cm long peduncle and axillary in position. Flowers are small, white in colour with 8-lobed greenish-yellow calyx, which is persistent, forming a cap-like structure above the propagules. Propagules are spindle shaped, 10 to 15 cm long, 0.5 to 1 cm in diameter, smooth, slightly curved, cylindrical and green to purplish-green in colour, which are buoyant and dispersed by currents.

 Distribution: It grows in mangroves of E. Asia - coastal areas from India and Sri Lanka through southeast Asia to New Guinea and northeast Australia. It is found either as a dominant or co-dominant species in many of the mangrove ecosystem of the Maldives. It also found in the form of pure stands. A large number of young seedlings are found growing in the areas wherever this species is dominant.

Small-leaved Orange Mangrove's facts

Did you know?


  • Bruguiera cylindrica is the most common true mangrove in Maldives and it occurs throughout the islands from north to south.

Small-leaved Orange Mangrove's Behavior & Ecology

It grows on light, medium and heavy soil but prefers silty clay soil and high- and mid- tidal zone for better performance. Its optimum soil salinity ranges from 8 to 34 ppt. It is propagated by propagules. Unlike in Avicennia spp., propagules of Bruguiera spp. are spindle shaped because hypocotyl penetrates the seed coat and elongates (called as viviparous propagules). Matured propagules are purplish-green in colour which can be collected from water or plucked from trees. They can be directly planted in the selected locations by inserting them up to one-third of their length into the soil. Nursery-raised seedlings 20 to 30 cm height can be also used for outplanting. Direct planting of propagules are economical and less time consuming.

Small-leaved Orange Mangrove's Conservation

Although there are overall range declines in many areas, they are not enough to reach any of the threatened category thresholds. The plant, therefore, is classified as 'Least Concern' in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.

Small-leaved Orange Mangrove's Relationship with Humans

The timber of Bruguiera cylindrica is dense, reddish and strong and is used in construction. It burns well as firewood and can be converted into charcoal. The crushed bark has an unusual odour which is repulsive to fish and this wood is not therefore used for fish traps. Nevertheless, extracts are made from the pneumatophores which are used in the manufacture of perfume. Parts of the tree are eaten; the root tips are relished in Thailand; the bark supplies a spice and the young shoots are boiled and served as a vegetable.In traditional medicine, the skin of the fruit is used to stop bleeding and the leaves are used to lower blood pressure. 

In the Maldives, propagules are consumed after removing the skin and boiling them three to four times, first with ash to remove the bitterness and then with salt for taste. It is considered as a famine food and it was once planted in large areas in some islands, primarily for use during famine. It is also considered as a timber tree. Timber is hard and strong and used for boat building. Timber is normally buried in sand at the edges of the sea for about six months to prevent easy decay. Poles are used for house construction. Timber is used for parts of the hull and, especially, for the keel of canoes.

Small-leaved Orange Mangrove habitat

This species is found in downstream and intermediate estuarine zones in the mid-intertidal region. It is shade tolerant (Robertson and Alongi 1992). This species has a high regeneration potential, although it has a slow-growth rate. When mangroves are cut, this is one of the first species to return after Acrostichium species. Occationally this species can be found in pure stands.

Small-leaved Orange Mangrove threats

This species is often targeted for timber, as it grows straight and is considered good for construction and charcoal production. Although local estimates are uncertain due to differing legislative definitions of what is a 'mangrove' and to the imprecision in determining mangrove area, current consensus estimates of mangrove loss in the last quarter-century report an approximately 24% decline in mangrove areas in countries within this species range since 1980 (FAO 2007).

All mangrove ecosystems occur within mean sea level and high tidal elevations, and have distinct species zonations that are controlled by the elevation of the substrate relative to mean sea level. This is because of associated variation in frequency of elevation, salinity and wave action (Duke et al. 1998). With rise in sea-level, the habitat requirements of each species will be disrupted, and species zones will suffer mortality at their present locations and re-establish at higher elevations in areas that were previously landward zones (Ellison 2005). If sea-level rise is a continued trend over this century, then there will be continued mortality and re-establishment of species zones. However, species that are easily dispersed and fast growing/fast producing will cope better than those which are slower growing and slower to reproduce.

In addition, mangrove area is declining globally due to a number of localized threats. The main threat is habitat destruction and removal of mangrove areas. Reasons for removal include cleared for shrimp farms, agriculture, fish ponds, rice production and salt pans, and for the development of urban and industrial areas, road construction, coconut plantations, ports, airports, and tourist resorts. Other threats include pollution from sewage effluents, solid wastes, siltation, oil, and agricultural and urban runoff. Climate change is also thought to be a threat, particularly at the edges of a species range. Natural threats include cyclones, hurricane and tsunamis.

Small-leaved Orange Mangrove's status