The plant is a vigorous grower and has a rapidly-developing taproot. It may be a bushy shrub 4 to 6 ft (1.2-1.8 m) high, or a tree 10 to 30 or even 40 ft (3-9 or 12 m) tall; erect or wide-spreading, with gracefully drooping branches and downy, zigzag branchlets, thornless or set with short, sharp straight or hooked spines. It may be evergreen, or leafless for several weeks in hot summers. The leaves are alternate, ovate- or oblong-elliptic, 1 to 2 1/2 in (2.5-6.25cm) long, 3/4 to 1 1/2 in (2-4cm) wide; distinguished from those of the Chinese jujube by the dense, silky, whitish or brownish hairs on the underside and the short, downy petioles. On the upper surface, they are very glossy, dark-green, with 3 conspicuous, depressed, longitudinal veins, and there are very fine teeth on the margins.
The 5-petalled flowers are yellow, tiny, in 2's or 3's in the leaf axils. The fruit of wild trees is 1/2 to 1 in (1.25-2.5cm) long. With sophisticated cultivation, the fruit reaches 2 1/2 in (6.25cm) in length and 1 3/4 in (4.5cm) in width. The form may be oval, obovate, round or oblong; the skin smooth or rough, glossy, thin but tough, turns from light-green to yellow, later becomes partially or wholly burnt-orange or red-brown or all-red. When slightly underripe, the flesh is white, crisp, juicy, acid or subacid to sweet, somewhat astringent, much like that of a crabapple. Fully ripe fruits are less crisp and somewhat mealy; overripe fruits are wrinkled, the flesh buff-coloured, soft, spongy and musky. At first the aroma is applelike and pleasant but it becomes peculiarly musky as the fruit ages. There is a single, hard, oval or oblate, rough central stone which contains 2 elliptic, brown seeds, 1/4 in (6mm) long.
Indian Jujube's facts
Grows in the form of shrub or small tree that can reach 4 to 40 feet in height and 33 feet in width. It produces numerous zigzag branches covered with curved thorns.
develops oval or ovate leaves with rounded tips and finely toothed or smooth margins. They are dark green, glossy on the upper side, hairy on the bottom side and alternately arranged on the branches.
Fruitis round- or egg-shaped drupe. It has smooth, thin skin, fleshy pulp and hard stone with two oval seed in the middle. Ripe fruit can be yellow, orange or reddish-brown colored.
Slightly unripe fruit has apple-like texture and taste. Fully ripe fruit has mealy texture, musky odor and wrinkled skin.
Indian Jujube's Behavior & Ecology
Plants are capable of seed production once they reach a height of about 1 metre.Established plants are capable of vigorous sprouting and rapid shoot growth from the stem base and root crown following top-kill.
The tree grows best on sandy loam, neutral or slightly alkaline. It also grows well on laterite, medium black soils with good drainage, or sandy, gravelly, alluvial soil of dry river-beds where it is vigorously spontaneous, Even moderately saline soils are tolerated. The tree is remarkable in its ability to tolerate water-logging as well as drought.
Indian Jujube's Feeding
Just like the other plants it is an autotrophic organism.
Indian Jujube's Reproduction
Propagates by seeds, seedlings, direct sowing, root suckers as well as by cuttings. Seeds may remain viable for 2 1/2 years but the rate of germination declines with age.