Species Details

Details of Oriental Garden Lizard will be displayed below

Oriental Garden Li...   

Common Name: Oriental garden lizard, eastern garden lizard, bloodsucker or changeable lizard
Scientific Name: Calotes versicolor
Local Name: Female: Bondu, Male: Rakis Bondu / Kashi Bondu,
Dhivehi Name: ބޮނޑު (އ) ، ރަކިސް ބޮނޑު/ ކަށި ބޮނޑު (ފ)
Animalia  (Kingdom)
Chordata  (Plylum)
Reptilia  (Class)
Squamata  (Order)
Agamidae  (Family)
Calotes   (Genus)

Oriental Garden Lizard's description

It measures over 10 cm (3.9 in) in length snout-to-vent. Total length including the tail is up to 37 cm (14.5 in). Two small groups of spines, perfectly separated from each other, above each tympanum. Dorsal crest moderately elevated on the neck and anterior part of the trunk, extending on to the root of the tail in large individuals, and gradually disappearing on the middle of the trunk in younger ones. No fold in front of the shoulder, but the scales behind the lower jaw are much smaller than the others; gular sac not developed. From thirty-nine to forty-three series of scales round the middle of the trunk. The hind foot (measured from the heel to the extremity of the fourth toe) is not much longer than the head in the adult, whilst it is considerably longer in the young. The coloration is very variable, sometimes uniform brownish or greyish-olive or yellowish. Generally broad brown bands across the back, interrupted by a yellowish lateral band. Black streaks radiate from the eye, and some of them are continued over the throat, running obliquely backwards, belly frequently with greyish longitudinal stripes, one along the median line being the most distinct; young and half-grown specimens have a dark, black-edged band across the inter-orbital region.

The ground-colour is generally a light brownish olive, but the lizard can change it to bright red, to black, and to a mixture of both. This change is sometimes confined to the head, at other times diffused over the whole body and tail. A common state in which it may be seen (as stated by Mr. Jerdon) is, seated on a hedge or bush, with the tail and limbs black, head and neck yellow picked out with red, and the rest of the body red. Jerdon and Blyth agree that these bright, changeable colours are peculiar to the male during the breeding-season, which falls in the months of May and June.

Mouhot has collected in Siam one of those fine variations of colours, which, however, appear to be infinite. It has the usual cross streaks between the eyes and the radiating lines continent of India to China; it is very common in Ceylon, not extending into the temperate zone of the Himalayas. Ceylonese specimens are generally somewhat larger; one of them measured 16 inches, the tail taking 11 inches. It is found in hedges and trees; it is known in Ceylon under the name of "Bloodsucker", a designation the origin of which cannot be satisfactorily traced; in the opinion of Kelaart, the name was given to it from the occasional reddish hue of the throat and neck. The female lays from five to sixteen soft oval eggs, about 5/8 of an inch long, in hollows of trees, or in holes in the soil which they have burrowed, afterward covering them up. The young appear in about eight or nine weeks. In a hot sunny day a solitary Bloodsucker may be seen on a twig or on a wall, basking in the sun, with mouth wide open. After a shower of rain numbers of them are seen to come down on the ground and pick up the larva and small insects which fall from the trees during the showers.



Oriental Garden Lizard's facts

Do you know?

  • Like other reptiles, they shed their skins. Like chameleons, Oriental Garden Lizards can move each of their eyes in different directions.
  • The Oriental Garden Lizard is referred to as the “Bloodsucker” in many areas, a name that stirs up unnecessary fears. Obviously, the Oriental Garden Lizard is an insect-eater and does not suck blood from anything, especially not humans.
  • The Oriental Garden Lizard is also known as the “Changeable Lizard”, due to its wide variation in coloration and ability to change colors significantly during the breeding season.
  • Oriental garden lizards are related to iguanas (which are found only in the New World).
  • Unlike other lizards, they do not drop their tails (autotomy), and their tails can be very long, stiff and pointy.


Oriental Garden Lizard's Behavior & Ecology

The Oriental Garden Lizard is relatively common and found in a wide range of habitats and commonly found among the undergrowth in open habitats including highly urban areas. Oriental Garden Lizards can change body coloration to a certain degree. They are capable of rotating each eye independently. When approached, will usually cock an eye at the intruder and eventually scurry up a tree or into a bush. If caught, will thrash and attempt to bite. Sleeps on vegetation at night. They appear to adapt well to humans and are thus not endangered.


Oriental Garden Lizard's Feeding

Oriental Garden Lizards eat mainly insects and small vertebrates, including rodents and other lizards. Although they have teeth, these are designed for gripping prey and not tearing it up. So prey is swallowed whole, after it is stunned by shaking it about. Sometimes, young inexperienced Oriental Garden Lizards may choke on prey which is too large. Occasionally Oriental Garden Lizards also consume vegetable matter. 

Oriental Garden Lizard's Reproduction

During breeding season, the male gets a bright red throat. Male Oriental Garden Lizard will approach the female while extending its “gular” (throat sac), raise the front of its body as high as possible while nodding its head, and open and close its mouth repeatedly. Males become highly territorial during breeding season and may also demonstrate this aggressive behavior when approached by people during the breeding season. They discourage intruding males by brightening their red heads and doing “push-ups”. Each tries to attract a female by inflating his throat and drawing attention to his handsomely colored head. About 10—20 eggs are laid, buried in moist soil. The eggs are long, spindle-shaped and covered with a leathery skin. They hatch in about 6–7 weeks. They are able to breed at about 1 year old.



Oriental Garden Lizard's Conservation

The Oriental Garden Lizard is a common species found in almost all the islands of Maldives.


Oriental Garden Lizard habitat

This largely arboreal edge habitat species is found in areas with trees or shrubs in tropical and subtropical regions, and will readily bask on walls or artificial substrates. Through the majority of its range it favours open forest and disturbed habitats, including parks and gardens (Das 2010), and it occurs widely in urban areas in India and Southeast Asia. In Pakistan it is reported to be most common in mesic areas close to streams, oases and rural gardens (Minton 1966). Within Iran, the species is known only from date palm groves (Anderson 1999) and has also been recorded in bushes in a dry stream bed away from date palms (T. Papenfuss pers. comm. September 2008). In Malaysia and Singapore, this diurnal lizard is  most common in altered habitats such as rubber plantations, freeway rest stops, along forest edges, in villages, and in other urban habitats such as small edges in downtown Singapore (Grismer 2011), being particularly abundant on the trunks of trees (Flower 1896, Grismer 2011). It has not been recorded from either rubber plantations or Eucalyptus forest in China. In Peninsular Malaysia, the species is expanding its range by following the growing urbanization, and it has been suggested that they are displacing smaller species of lizards during their colonization process by feeding on their young (Manthey and Schuster 1992, Grismer 2011).

The female lays several clutches of eggs, with clutch sizes appearing to exhibit regional variation; while Minton (1966) reports clutches containing 7-19 eggs for western Pakistan, Das (2010) reports that clutches can contain 6-9 eggs in southern India, and as many as 23 in the country's north. The incubation period varies from 42-67 days (Das 2010). According to Grismer (2011), in Peninsular Malaysia, the breeding season begins at the onset of the winter monsoons and by mid-monsoon season females lay up to 25 eggs in a single nest that hatch within 37-79 days depending on temperature, and hatchlings take 9-12 months to reach sexual maturity. In China clutch sizes of 5-6 have been reported from April to September (Zhao et al. 1999).

Oriental Garden Lizard threats

There are presumably no major threats to this very widespread and adaptable species globally. In urban areas some animals are taken by domestic cats. In China, its population might be affected by consumption for Chinese traditional medicine, food, and the pet trade (X. Ji pers. comm. 2018).

Oriental Garden Lizard's status